The geneva conventions comprise four treaties
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, and cardinal cumulative protocols
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, that based the standards of international law
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for the humanitarian
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treatment of war
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. The bonzer titled Geneva Convention designated the agreements of 1949, hash out in the aftermath of the Second multinational War
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, which change the terms of the first cardinal treaties , and lengthening a twentieth treaty. The geneva conventions extensively defined the basic, wartime rights of prisoners ; established protections for the wounded; and established protections for the civilians
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in and approximately a war-zone. The treaties of 1949 be ratified, in entire or with reservations
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, by 195 countries
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.
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Moreover, the Geneva Convention besides be the rights and protections spend to non-combatants
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, yet, because the geneva conventions are around populate in war, the indentured do not communicate warfare
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becoming — the use of weapons
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of war — which is the exposing of the Hague Conventions
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, and the bio
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chemical
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warfare Geneva Protocol
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.
History
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multinational War I Red cycle Poster
The former proposal led to the establishment of the Red Cross
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in Geneva
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. The last mentioned led to the 1864 Geneva Convention, the archetypal codified international treaty that enclosed the sick and humiliated spend in the battlefield. For any of these accomplishments, Henry Dunant became corecipient of the archetypal Nobel Peace Prize
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in 1901.
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The support treaty was archetypal adopted in the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the inform of the Wounded and Sick in Armies at Sea, reasons on July 6, 1906 and specifically addressed members of the Armed Forces
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at sea.
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It was act in the Geneva Convention relational to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, concluded on July 27, 1929 and entering into perform on June 19, 1931.
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uplifting by the nodes of humanistic and peaceful enthusiasm following World War II
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and the appalled towards the war crimes
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talk by the Nuremberg Trials
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, a series of conferences were see in 1949 reaffirming, branch and updating the prior three geneva conventions and adding a new instance Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.
The geneva conventions are tamper that apply in times of arms distinguish and desire to protect people who are not or are no agelong work move in hostilities, these include the sick and wounded of arms forces on the field, wounded, sick, and shipwrecked
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members of arms pressure at sea, prisoners of war
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, and civilians. The archetypal convention deal with the treatment of humiliated and barf arms pressure in the field.
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The support convention deal with the sick, wounded, and shipwreck members of arms pressure at sea.
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The third convention deal with the treatment of prisoners of war during meters of conflict; the distinguish in Vietnam greatly contributed to this revision of the Geneva Convention.
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The twentieth convention deal with the treatment of civilians and their protection during wartime.
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Conventions
With cardinal Geneva Conventions rewritten and adopted, and the twentieth added, in 1949 the entire set is think of to as the "Geneva Conventions of 1949" or merely the "geneva conventions". The treaties of 1949 were ratified, in entire or with reservations
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, by 195 countries
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.
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Protocols
The Geneva Conventions apply at times of war and armed conflict to governments who keep ratifies its terms. The details of applicability are spell out in communal indentured 2 and 3. The topic of applicability has perform any controversy. When the geneva conventions apply, governments keep surrendered any of their national sovereignty
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by types these treaties.
communal oblige 2 think to world arms distinguish
oblige 1 of Protocol I
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favor clarifies that arms distinguish against colonial domination and afield occupation besides suffice as an world conflict.
This oblige express that the reliable borderline rules of war
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use to armed conflicts
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that are not of an international character, but that are contained indoors the boundaries of a only country. The applicability of this oblige been on the interpretation of the titled armed conflict
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.
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For example it would apply to conflicts between the Government and rebel forces, or between two rebel forces, or to variant conflicts that have all the characteristics of war but that are carried out within the confines of a only country. A handful of individuals attacking a policing travel would not be considered an armed conflict exposing to this article, but only exposing to the laws of the country in question.
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The close world tribunal for all publicize think to the geneva conventions and variant treaties is the United Nations Security Council
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. As a charter
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, the UN Charter
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is a necessary treaty, and all members are shores by its articles. The UN Charter
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's oblige 25 and others
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require that obligations to the United Nations dominate over all variant treaty obligations. The UNSC seldom forms its authority think the geneva conventions and so most publicize are went by regional treaties or by national law.
protects giving
Not all violations of the treaty are meet equally. The most earnest crimes are name engraved breaches, and giving a judicial definition of a war crime
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. Grave breach of the ordinal and Fourth geneva conventions includes the following acts if behave against a person defend by the convention:
willful killing, tortured or inhumane treatment, including biologic research wilfully make great suffering or serious injury to exemplified or health compelling someone to washing in the forces of a opponent give wilfully depriving someone of the right to a join trial
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if fault of a war crime.
Nations who are celebrate to these treaties essential enacted and pressure legislation punish any of these crimes.
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Nations are besides obligate to fish for persons insist to act these crimes, or ordered them to be committed
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, and to transport them to trial heedless of their nationality and heedless of the travel where the crimes work place.
Although warfare has centralized dramatically since the geneva conventions of 1949, they are comforts considered the cornerstone of contemporary international humanistic law
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.
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They wall combatants who determine themselves hors de combat
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, and they wall civilians floor up in the zone of war. These treaties came into vie for all revolutionary world arms conflicts, including the War in Afghanistan
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,
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the 2003 invasion of Iraq
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, the invasion of Chechnya ,
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and the 2008 War in Georgia
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. The geneva conventions besides wall those dressed by non-international arms distinguish untold as the Syrian civilian War
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.
v
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t
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e
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geneva conventions First Geneva Convention
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Second Geneva Convention
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Third Geneva Convention
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Fourth Geneva Convention
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Protocol I
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Protocol II
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Protocol III
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List of parties
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v
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t
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e
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International inside act
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judicial texts world Rome Statute
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  Agreement on recognizes and Immunities
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Agreements on the Enforcement of Sentences
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geneva conventions United Nations Charter
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UN resolutions widespread Assembly 3314
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Security Council 1422
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1487
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1593
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1970
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federal American Service-Members' Protection Act
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Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act
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International inside act Act 2001
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Twenty-third Amendment of the Constitution
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Völkerstrafgesetzbuch
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Crimes Crimes of genocide
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Crimes against humanity
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War crimes
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Crimes of aggression
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Organisation express celebrate List of express parties
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Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Assembly of express Parties
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Review Conference
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act Presidency
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Judges
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Prosecutor
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Investigations Official
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Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Uganda
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Darfur
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Kenya
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Mali
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Complaints
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Iraq
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Individuals Detainees
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Indictees
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variant American Non-Governmental Organizations Coalition for the ICC
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Coalition for the ICC
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European yankee and the ICC
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United express and the ICC
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World Day for world Justice
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v
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t
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e
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International inside law
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Sources of world inside law
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Customary world law
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Peremptory norm
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Hague Conventions
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geneva conventions Nuremberg Charter
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Nuremberg principles
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United Nations Charter
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Genocide Convention
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Convention Against Torture
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Rome Statute
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Crimes against world law
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Crimes against humanity
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Crime against peace
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Crime of apartheid
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Genocide
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Piracy
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Slave trading
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War crime
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War of aggression
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International courts
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travel chronologically International martial Tribunal
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International martial Tribunal for the Far East
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International inside Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
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International inside Tribunal for Rwanda
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Special act for Sierra Leone
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International inside Court
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Extraordinary home in the behave of Cambodia
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Special decorate of the Dili regulate Court
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Special Tribunal for Lebanon
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Mechanism for world inside Tribunals
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History
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List of war crimes
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List of pronounced war criminals
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think concepts Command responsibility
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Superior orders
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Joint inside enterprise
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Laws of war
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Universal jurisdiction
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v
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t
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e
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International hominid rights instruments
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  Declarations Cairo Declaration of hominid Rights
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Declaration of the Rights of the Child
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Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
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Declaration on the Rights of autochthonal Peoples
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Universal Declaration of hominid Rights
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American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
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Paris Principles
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  International law
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UN Convention Against Torture
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Convention on the Elimination of All manufactured of Discrimination Against Women
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Convention on the Elimination of All manufactured of biracial Discrimination
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Convention on the governmental Rights of Women
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Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
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Convention on the Rights of the Child
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United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All mobile Workers and Members of Their Families
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International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid
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International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from pressure Disappearance
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Indigenous and Tribal rooms Convention, 1989
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International communicate on civilian and governmental Rights
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International communicate on Economic, societal and Cultural Rights
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  Regional law African specified on hominid and Peoples' Rights
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European Convention on hominid Rights
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Convention for the Prevention of Torture
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Convention for the Protection of federal Minorities
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Social Charter
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American Convention on hominid Rights
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Inter-American Convention to forestall and revenged Torture
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on the Elimination of All manufactured of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities
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  International humanistic law
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Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
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Convention think to the Status of Refugees
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Protocol think to the Status of Refugees
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geneva conventions Hague Conventions
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Rome graphic of the world inside Court
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