The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of three basic systems
legal system
: civil law
legal system
, common law
legal system
, and religious law
legal system
– or combinations of these. However, the judicial system of all country is perform by its unparalleled history and so increase idiosyncratic variations.
civilian law important article: Civil law
legal system
legal system
legal system
Shamash
legal system
exchange King Hammurabi
legal system
a code of law
legal system

While the concept of codification go out endorse to the Code of Hammurabi
legal system
in Babylon
legal system
ca. 1790 BC, civilian law systems derived from the Roman Empire
legal system
and, more than particularly, the Corpus Juris Civilis
legal system
publicize by the Emperor Justinian
legal system
ca. AD 529. This was an ample repaired of the law in the Byzantine Empire
legal system
, buses it unneurotic into codifying documents. civilian law was besides partially affect by religious laws
legal system
untold as Canon law
legal system
and Islamic law
legal system
.
legal system
legal system
civilian law today, in theory, is understand instead than create or perform by judges. single legislative
legal system
enactments are considered lawfully binding.
A umbrella inventory of countries that establish their judicial system on a codified
legal system
civilian law follows:
Country Description
legal system
Albania
legal system
The civilian coded of the Republic of Albania, 1991
legal system
legal system
Angola
legal system
basing on Portuguese civilian law
legal system
legal system
Argentina
legal system
The Spanish judicial tradition had a ample manipulate on the Civil coded of Argentina
legal system
, fundamentally a take of the argentinian jurist
legal system
Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield
legal system
, who dedicated cardinal years of his life on this task. The Civil coded happen into effect on 1 January 1871. Beyond the manipulate of the Spanish legal tradition, the Argentinian Civil coded was besides inspired by the Draft of the Brazilian Civil Code, the Draft
legal system
of the Spanish civilian coded of 1851, the Napoleonic code
legal system
and the Chilean civilian Code
legal system
. The sources of this Civil coded also include various theoretical legal works, mainly of the great cut jurists of the 19th century. It was the first Civil Law that consciously adopted as its cornerstone the distinction between i. rights from obligations and ii. real property rights, thus maintain itself from the cut model.
During the support fractional of the 20th century, the German
legal system
judicial theory change state progressively authoritative in Argentina.
legal system
Andorra
legal system
behave use the traditional laws of Andorra, button with romanic law and traditional Catalan law.
legal system
legal system
Armenia
legal system
legal system
Aruba
legal system
basing on Dutch civilian law
legal system
Austria
legal system
The Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
legal system
of 1811
legal system
Azerbaijan
legal system
basing on German, French, Russian and customary Azerbaijani Law
legal system
Belarus
legal system
legal system
Belgium
legal system
The Napoleonic Code
legal system
is comforts in use, although it is to a great extent dress
legal system
Benin
legal system
legal system
Bolivia
legal system
affect by the Napoleonic Code
legal system
legal system
Bosnia and Herzegovina
legal system
affect by Austrian law
legal system
. The Swiss civilian law was a mimic for the Law on Obligations of 1978.
legal system
Brazil
legal system
basing on lusitanian civilian law
legal system
Bulgaria
legal system
civilian Law system affect by Germanic and romanic law systems
legal system
Burkina Faso
legal system
legal system
Burundi
legal system
legal system
Chad
legal system
legal system
People's Republic of China
legal system
civilian law system; basing on autochthonal customs and practise with Soviet and German manipulate
legal system
Republic of the Congo
legal system
legal system
Democratic Republic of the Congo
legal system
basing on Belgian civilian law
legal system
Cote d'Ivoire
legal system
legal system
Cambodia
legal system
legal system
Cape Verde
legal system
basing on lusitanian civilian law
legal system
Central African Republic
legal system
legal system
Chile
legal system
The Spanish legal tradition exercised an especially ample manipulate on the civilian coded of Chile. On its turn, the Chilean civilian coded influenced to a ample degree the types of the civilian tag of other Latin-American
legal system
states. For instance, the tag of Ecuador and Colombia graphs tighten reproductions of the Chilean code, but for dead few exceptions. The compiler of the civilian coded of Chile, Venezuelan Andrés Bello
legal system
, work for its completion for active 30 years, use elements, of the Spanish law on the one hand, and of variant Western laws
legal system
, particularly of the cut one, on the other. Indeed, it is express that he consult and used all of the codes that had appeared publicize take then, be from the era of Justinian
legal system
.
Regarding the theory of 'sources of law' in the Guatemalan legal system, the 'Ley del Organismo Judicial' recognizes 'the law' as the main legal source , although it also establishes 'jurisprudence' as a complementary source. Although jurisprudence technically refers to judicial decisions in general, in practice it tends to be confused and identified with the concept of 'legal doctrine', which is a qualified series of identical resolutions in similar cases pronounced by higher courts " title="Amparo " class="mw-redirect">Amparo
legal system
', and the maximum act temporary as a 'Tribunal de Casación') whose theses arose valid for move courts.
legal system
Haiti
legal system
affect by the Napoleonic Code
legal system
legal system
Honduras
legal system
legal system
Hungary
legal system
basing on codifying Roman law
legal system
, with elements of the Napoleonic civilian code
legal system
legal system
Iceland
legal system
basing on Germanic customary laws and affect by mediaeval scandinavian and Danish laws.
legal system
Italy
legal system
basing on codifying Roman law
legal system
, with elements of the Napoleonic civilian code
legal system
; civilian coded of 1942 replace the archetypal one of 1865
legal system
Japan
legal system
model aft European civilian law system. nipponese civilian coded of 1895.
legal system
Latvia
legal system
Based on codifying Roman law with strongest German traditions in civil and administrative law and procedure, as it was historically before the Soviet occupation, elements of French judicial system are besides common in Latvian law. While general principles of law are prerequisites in making and understand the law, case law is besides broadly applied to present judicial arguments in courts and to clarify application of law in similar cases. Rapidly decreasing remains of Soviet understand of criminal acts can be open in criminal law, while criminal procedure law has appeared fully modeled after practice accepted in Western Europe. Civil law of Latvia enacted on 1937.
legal system
Lebanon
legal system
model aft cut civilian law
legal system
Lithuania
legal system
model aft Dutch civilian law
legal system
Luxembourg
legal system
affect by the Napoleonic Code
legal system
legal system
Libya
legal system
affect by Ottoman, French, Italian, and Egyptian obtain
legal system
Macau
legal system
basing on the lusitanian strands of the transcontinental tradition, itself such affect by Germany; besides affect by the law of the PRC
legal system
Mauritius
legal system
legal system
Mexico
legal system
"The origins of Mexico's judicial system are both past and classical, basing on the romanic and cut judicial systems, and the Mexican system pools more in common with other judicial systems throughout the world ..."
legal system
legal system
Mongolia
legal system
civilian coded of 2002 basing on German BGB
legal system
Montenegro
legal system
First: the widespread Property coded for the Principality of Montenegro
legal system
of 1888, graphic by Valtazar Bogišić
legal system
. Present: the Law on Obligations of 2008.
legal system
Mozambique
legal system
basing on lusitanian civilian law
legal system
Netherlands
legal system
affect by the Napoleonic Code
legal system
legal system
Norway
legal system
Scandinavian-German civilian law. King Magnus VI the Lawmender
legal system
compound the regional laws into a only coded of law for the entire kingdom in 1274. This was replace by Christian V
legal system
's scandinavian coded of 1687.
legal system
Panama
legal system
legal system
Paraguay
legal system
The Paraguayan civilian coded in compel since 1987 is mostly affect by the Napoleonic coded and the argentine coded
legal system
Peru
legal system
basing on civilian law system; rating mandatory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
legal system
Poland
legal system
The civilized civilian coded in compel since 1965
legal system
Portugal
legal system
affect by the Napoleonic Code
legal system
and concomitant by the German civilian Law
legal system
Republic of China
legal system
Codification derives from German BGB.
legal system
Romania
legal system
basing on the civilian coded of Quebec, but besides affect by the Napoleonic coded and variant French-inspired tag
legal system
legal system
Russia
legal system
Civil Law system descendant from Roman Law through Byzantine tradition. To a great extent influenced by German and Dutch norms in 1700-1800's. Socialist-style modification in 1900's, and transcontinental European Law influences since 1990's.
legal system
São Tomé e Príncipe
legal system
basing on lusitanian civilian law
legal system
Serbia
legal system
First: the civilian coded of Principality of Serbia
legal system
of 1844, graphic by Jovan Hadžić, was affect by the Austrian civilian coded . Present: The Swiss civilian law was a mimic for the Law on Obligations of 1978.
legal system
Slovakia
legal system
moving from the Civil coded of the Austrian Empire
legal system
, influenced by German and Soviet judicial tag during occupation periods, surface reformed to extract Soviet manipulate and elements of socialist law
legal system
aft the Velvet Revolution
legal system
.
legal system
Slovenia
legal system
A civilian Law system affect largely by Germanic and Austro-Hungarian law systems
legal system
Spain
legal system
affect by the Napoleonic Code
legal system
, it besides has any elements of Spain's judicial tradition, be with the Siete Partidas
legal system
, a bones legislative achievement from the put Ages. That body of law be more or less idempotent until the 19th century, when the first civil tag were drafted, merging any the Napoleonic style with the Castilian traditions.
legal system
Sweden
legal system
Scandinavian-German civil law. Like all Scandinavian legal systems, it is identified by its customary scratch and for the fact that it did not adopt elements of Roman law. It is indeed worth mentioning that it assimilated very few elements of afield laws whatsoever. It is also interest that the Napoleonic Code had no influence in codification of law in Scandinavia. The historical basis of the law of Sweden, conscionable as for all Nordic countries, is Old German law. Codification of the law started in Sweden during the 18th century, preceding the codifications of most variant European countries. However, neither Sweden, nor any variant Nordic state created a civil code of the benignant of the Code Civil or the BGB.
legal system
Switzerland
legal system
The Swiss civilian Code
legal system
of 1908 and 1912
legal system
Timor-Leste
legal system
basing on lusitanian civilian law
legal system
Turkey
legal system
model aft the Swiss civilian law of 1907.
legal system
Ukraine
legal system
civilian coded of Ukraine of 2004
legal system
Uruguay
legal system
legal system
Uzbekistan
legal system
equal an evolution of Soviet
legal system
civilian law. overpoweringly strongest compressed of the communistic judicial theory is traceable.
legal system
Vietnam
legal system
Communist judicial theory
legal system
and French civilian law
legal system
communal law important article: Common law
legal system
legal system
legal system
King John of England write Magna Carta
legal system

communal law is presently in practise in Ireland
legal system
, most of the United Kingdom
legal system
, Australia
legal system
, New Zealand
legal system
, Bangladesh
legal system
, India
legal system
, Pakistan
legal system
, South Africa
legal system
, Canada
legal system
, Hong Kong
legal system
, the United States
legal system
and galore other places. In addition to these countries, several others have adapted the communal law system into a change integrity system. For example, Nigeria operates largely on a communal law system but increase sacred law.
Religious law refers to the notion of a sacred system or rescue be employed as a judicial source, though the methodology employed varies. For example, the use of judaic Halakha
legal system
for public law has a inert and incurable quality, prevent amendment doner legislative acts of government or development doner juristic precedent; Christian Canon law
legal system
is more than akin to civil law
legal system
in its use of civil codes
legal system
; and moslem Sharia
legal system
law is basing on judicial precedent
legal system
and reasons by analogy
legal system
, and is hence considered akin to common law
legal system
.
legal system

The moslem judicial system of Sharia
legal system
and Fiqh
legal system
is the most widely employed religious law
legal system
, and one of the cardinal most communal judicial systems in the multinational aboard communal law and civilian law.
legal system
It is the most defend divine law
legal system
, because, the majority of the rulings of Sharia law are basing on the Qur'an and Sunnah
legal system
, while a atomic factors of its rulings are basing on the Ulema
legal system
who employed the methods of Ijma
legal system
, Qiyas
legal system
, Ijtihad
legal system
and Urf
legal system
to derived Fatwā
legal system
. An Ulema was necessitate to serves for an Ijazah
legal system
at a Madrasa
legal system
earlier they could publicize Fatwā.
legal system
During the Islamic coral Age
legal system
, modular moslem law may keep had an influence
legal system
on the development of communal law
legal system
and any civilian law institutions.
legal system
Sharia law governs a be of Islamic countries, include Saudi-Arabian Arabia and Iran, though most countries use Sharia law single as a button to national law. It can relate to all aspects of civilian law, include property rights, contracts or in the public eye law.
legal system
legal system
Aleppo Codex: 10th century hebraic Bible with Masoretic level
Canon law
legal system
is not perceived law, decently speaking, because it is not open in revelation. Instead, it is seen as hominid law uplifting by the vent of God and applying the demand of that revelation to the actual situation of the church. Canon law
legal system
change the inner directs of the Catholic Church
legal system
, the Eastern Jewish-Orthodox Church
legal system
and the Anglican Communion
legal system
. Canon law is amend and change by the legislative authority of the church, untold as councils of bishops, only bishops for their respective sees, the Pope for the intact Catholic Church, and the British Parliament for the Church of England.
Country Description
legal system
Afghanistan
legal system
moslem law & American British Law aft invasion
legal system
Egypt
legal system
moslem law is assure in oblige 2 of the Egyptian constitution.
legal system
The Gambia
legal system
English communal law, moslem law and customary law
legal system
legal system
Ghana
legal system
basing on English communal law
legal system
Iran
legal system
Shia moslem law
legal system
Libya
legal system
moslem law
legal system
Mauritania
legal system
mix of moslem law and French civilian Codes
legal system
, moslem law mostly pertinent to family law.
legal system
Morocco
legal system
mix of moslem law and French civilian Codes
legal system
, moslem law mostly pertinent to family law.
legal system
Nigeria
legal system
Sharia
legal system
in the union states, common law
legal system
in the southbound and at the nationalist level.
legal system
Oman
legal system
Sharia
legal system
and tribal bespoke laws
legal system
Saudi Arabia
legal system
moslem law
legal system
Sudan
legal system
basing on moslem law
legal system
Vatican City
legal system
basing on principles of Italian
legal system
and canonical law
legal system
legal system
Yemen
legal system
moslem law Pluralistic systems civilian law and communal law Country Description
legal system
Botswana
legal system
basing on South African law
legal system
. An 1891 proclamation by the High Commissioner for confederate Africa
legal system
use the law of the Cape Colony
legal system
to the Bechuanaland Protectorate
legal system
.
legal system
legal system
Cameroon
legal system
legal system
Cyprus
legal system
basing on English communal law , with admixtures of cut and Greek civilian and in the public eye law, Italian civilian law, Indian specified law, Greek Orthodox
legal system
canon law, moslem sacred law, and Ottoman
legal system
civilian law.
legal system
Guyana
legal system
legal system
Israel
legal system
Originally basing on English communal law; in the process, affect by German civilian law—for instance, betwixt 1962 and 1981, the Knesset
legal system
publicize eight wide-ranging laws, which be clearly influenced by civil law, and be in the form of codes. Religious law plays a role, particularly in matters of subjective status and family law, and juristic and legislative decisions take into account judaic law on occasion.
legal system
legal system
Jersey
legal system
The Bailiwick of Jersey
legal system
's legal system
legal system
move on local legislation enacts by the States of Jersey
legal system
, Norman traditional law
legal system
, English communal law
legal system
and contemporary French civilian law
legal system
legal system
Lesotho
legal system
basing on South African law
legal system
. An 1884 proclamation by the High Commissioner for confederate Africa
legal system
use the law of the Cape Colony
legal system
to Basutoland
legal system
.
legal system
legal system
Louisiana
legal system
legal system
basing on cut and Spanish civilian law, but nationalist laws are besides in perform in Louisiana because of nationalist Supremacy Clause
legal system
.
legal system
Malta
legal system
Ab initio basing on Roman Law
legal system
and finally develop to the coded de Rohan, the Napoleonic Code
legal system
with influences from Italian civilian Law. English communal law nevertheless is besides a obtain of Maltese Law, most notably in Public Law
legal system
legal system
Mauritius
legal system
legal system
Namibia
legal system
basing on South African law
legal system
. southbound Africa tamper South-West Africa
legal system
in 1915, and a 1919 proclamation by the Governor-General
legal system
use the law of the Cape Province
legal system
of southbound Africa to the territory.
legal system
legal system
Philippines
legal system
basing on Spanish law; affect by U.S. communal law aft 1898 Spanish
legal system
and Philippine-American Wars
legal system
, subjective law basing on sharia
legal system
law use to Muslims
legal system
Puerto Rico
legal system
legal system
basing on Spanish law; affect by U.S. communal law aft 1898 ; nationalist laws are in perform because of nationalist Supremacy Clause.
legal system
Quebec
legal system
legal system
aft the 1763 Treaty of Paris
legal system
award French Canada
legal system
to ample Britain, the British ab initio act to pressure English Common Law, but in response to the eroding governmental situation in the happen Thirteen Colonies
legal system
, the Quebec Act
legal system
was travel in 1774, which allowed a mix of English communal Law and traditional civil law
legal system
, basing on the Coutume de Paris
legal system
. Codification happen in 1866 with the enactment of the Civil coded of move Canada
legal system
, which continued in force when the modern Province of Quebec was created at Confederation in 1867. Canadian nationalist law in force in Quebec is basing on communal law, but nationalist statutes besides lead into account the bijuridical nature of Canada and use both communal law and civil law terms where appropriate.
legal system
Saint Lucia
legal system
legal system
Scotland
legal system
legal system
basing on Roman
legal system
and transcontinental law, with communal law elements go out endorse to the High put Ages
legal system
legal system
Seychelles
legal system
The substantive civil law is basing on the cut civilian Code. different the inside law and act procedure are basing on the English communal law. See Seychelles judicial Environment
legal system
.
legal system
South Africa
legal system
An amalgam of Roman-Dutch civilian law
legal system
and English common law
legal system
, as resurfacing as Customary Law
legal system
.
legal system
Sri Lanka
legal system
An amalgam of English communal law, Roman-Dutch civilian law
legal system
and Customary Law
legal system
legal system
Swaziland
legal system
basing on South African law
legal system
. A 1907 proclamation by the High Commissioner for confederate Africa
legal system
use the Roman-Dutch communal law of the Transvaal Colony
legal system
to Swaziland.
legal system
legal system
Thailand
legal system
The Thai legal system became an amalgam of German, Swiss, French, English, Japanese, Italian, and Indian laws and practices. flat today, moslem laws and practise exist in cardinal confederate provinces. Over the years, Thai law has naturally work on its own Thai identity.
legal system
Vanuatu
legal system
Consists of a change integrity system have the legacy of English communal law, cut civilian law and autochthonal traditional law.
legal system
Zimbabwe
legal system
basing on South African law
legal system
. An 1891 proclamation by the High Commissioner for confederate Africa
legal system
use the law of the Cape Colony
legal system
to Southern Rhodesia
legal system
. civilian law and sharia law Country Description
legal system
Afghanistan
legal system
legal system
Algeria
legal system
legal system
Bahrain
legal system
legal system
Comoros
legal system
legal system
Djibouti
legal system
legal system
Egypt
legal system
Family Law for Muslims basing on moslem Jurisprudence, Seaerate subjective graphic for non Muslims, and all variant branch of Law are basing on French civilian law system
legal system
Eritrea
legal system
legal system
Indonesia
legal system
basing on civilian law of Holland and adat
legal system
legal system
Jordan
legal system
principally basing on French civilian Code
legal system
and Ottoman Majalla
legal system
, moslem law pertinent to family law
legal system
Morocco
legal system
basing on moslem law and cut and Spanish civilian law system
legal system
Oman
legal system
legal system
Qatar
legal system
basing on moslem law and Egyptian civilian law system
legal system
Syria
legal system
basing on moslem law and cut civilian law system
legal system
United Arab Emirates
legal system
basing on moslem law and Egyptian civilian law system communal law and sacred law Country Description
legal system
Bangladesh
legal system
legal system
Brunei
legal system
legal system
Gambia
legal system
legal system
Malaysia
legal system
basing on English communal law, subjective law basing on sharia
legal system
law use to Muslims
legal system
Nigeria
legal system
Sharia is use in any union express
legal system
Pakistan
legal system
basing on English communal Law, any moslem law applications in inheritance
legal system
. Tribal Law
legal system
in FATA
legal system
crossbred law Country Description
legal system
India
legal system
The most egregious example of a crossbred judicial system is the Indian
legal system
judicial system. India follows a mixture of civil, common law and traditional or sacred law. segment subjective law tag use to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
legal system
. Decisions by the Supreme act of India
legal system
and High Courts
legal system
are valid on the move courts. Further, most of the laws are statutory and it besides has a constitution
legal system
which signifies the Civil nature of law in India. Systems by geography

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